100,000 years of Climate change and forest resilience in the Eastern Mediterranean
Palaeoclimatic and palaeoecological data from the entire Levant is rare and no data currently exists for Lebanon that spans the period from the Penultimate Glacial Maximum to the Holocene. This study utilises the lacustrine sedimentary record to reconstruct the vegetation dynamics and palaeoclimate for the last 135ka for the Southern Beqaa Valley, Lebanon from fossil pollen, stable isotopes and charcoal. Previous studies from the Southern Mediterranean region indicate that the Penultimate and Last Glacial periods are dominated by non-arboreal pollen (NAP) due to the cold and dry climatic conditions and that the abrupt onset of the Interglacial period (Eemian Interglacial) results in a arboreal pollen (AP) dominated landscape due to increased temperatures and precipitation. This study aims to test whether this pattern holds true for the Beqaa valley and also aims to establish whether the Beqaa Valley acted as a glacial refugia for Cedrus libani.